History and Description of Vaccines and Herd Immunity

When discussing the history of vaccines, most people begin in 1796 with the invention of the direct predecessor to modern day vaccines.[1] However, the story actually “begins with the long history of infectious disease in humans, and in particular, with early uses of smallpox material to provide immunity to that disease.”[2] “Evidence exists that the Chinese employed smallpox inoculation (or variolation, as such use of smallpox material was called) as early as 1000 CE. It was practiced in Africa and Turkey as well, before it spread to Europe and the Americas.”[3]

The…


Orphanages as a Front for Human Trafficking in the DRC and Africa More Generally

Originally published March 10, 2020 on www.msuilr.org.

Photo credit: “Orphanage” by Tormod Sandtorv is licensed under CC BY-SA 2.0

The Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC or Congo) is currently facing many problems, such as an ongoing Ebola outbreak, political unrest, and violent strife, a combination that has made solving each of the problems extra difficult.[1] These issues should not be overlooked, but another humanitarian issue in the DRC that we must pay due attention to is children being erroneously passed off as orphans for purposes…


Exploring the Many Communities of Reddit: An Introduction

Reddit may have flaws and issues, but it is also a wonderful platform with many benefits for its users. Reddit allows users to create subject based communities called subreddits. Even though many subreddits are small or only exist for entertainment (which itself can be important), and a few subreddits are toxic and harmful, many of Reddit’s communities are great places for people to learn and grow, for people to get much needed information or advice, for likeminded people to interact, and so much more. …


Changes I’ve Had to Make Due to COVID-19

We have all had to make sacrifices due to COVID-19, some of us a lot more than others, so I though that I should share some of the changes I have had to make. This is not going to be a complete list, there are too many things, particularly little things, to count. Many things have been cancelled, either by the organizers or by government orders, both of which tend to find support in the opinions of health experts.

For starters, my entire last semester of law school has been moved online…


How to Respond to a Crisis

This story was previously posted to Quora and to my social media.

Everyone, we are currently in the midst of a crisis. I know things seem bad right now, and in fact they are bad, but we will get through this.

This outbreak is a terrible tragedy that has harmed and killed many people and is unfortunately going to continue to harm and kill many people around the globe. Additionally, it has altered daily lives across the globe, will continue to do so for a yet unknown length of time, and may even permanently…


The Quiet Child

Note: I originally posted a version of this fictional story on Quora, as well as on other websites that use usernames (so my actual name was not attributed to them.) This story is my own.

As I set up camp for the night after collecting my payment from the village, I couldn’t help but reflect on the strange day. As I was wandering through town a spotted a curious little girl. She was maybe 7 or 8. She was quiet and her face betrayed great sadness, but also strangely a positive and cheerful outlook on life. She…


Eliminating The CEO

This fictional story was originally posted by me on Quora.

“What were the latest numbers? No, tell him no deal!” One of the world’s most powerful CEOs was ranting over his Bluetooth as he locked the door to his penthouse behind him. He had made himself a lot of enemies over the years. Tonight he would finally reap what he has sowed.

I smirk from my hiding place behind the couch as I firmly grasp my knife. As my target enters the kitchen he continues ranting. I slowly rise from my spit and quickly crouch walk towards…


A Collection of Poetry

Victory Over Evil

October 22, 2017

I lie here on the battlefield, bodies strewn all around

Exhausted, covered in blood, I hear but a single sound

My slow and shallow breathing is the only sign of life

It appears all others were already extinguished by a warrior’s mighty knife

My eyes move coldly side to side as I survey this ghastly scene

I start to slowly smile, for all is not as it may seem

Victory over evil has been won and now all is surely well

For the bitter, cruel and evil have been banished…


Review of Little Nightmares

Overall, it’s a great game! The visuals are shocking and stunning and the levels are well designed. The puzzles are challenging and the jump scares and other horror devices are well timed and not over used. In addition to the standard scare tactics such as shocking imagery and jump scares, this game also derives horror from its theme and by drawing on the worst traits of humanity, traits we all try to suppress. Eventually, you see parts of yourself in the villains, and that’s when the real nightmares start.

There are only a few controls to…


This article was originally published on MSU International Law Review: Legal Forum

New Zealand is a country known for being friendly towards civil liberties and personal freedoms.[1] This includes the freedom of speech, which, although more limited than in the US, is still quite broad in New Zealand.[2] “The New Zealand Bill of Rights Act 1990 (NZBORA) is one of several statutes that form part of New Zealand’s constitution . . . Section 14 provides protection for ‘freedom of expression,’ stating that ‘[e]veryone has the right to freedom of expression, including the freedom to seek, receive, and impart information and…

Austin Blessing

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